If you’ve got the space you know add a few more the other thing you might want to include in an abstract as a final sentence is the key message and this is what is this paper about and if you wanted someone to cite you on this paper what would there be say it so if you said this paper is about what do you want them to take away from your abstract or your paper so that’s something that is of an optional but it’s worth putting in there if you want to really strong abstract and it’s worth thinking about so given that abstracts are often very short and what I’ve just told you to put into the abstract can end up being quite long what can you cut if you need to cut and if you only have 250 words what are the most important elements so the most important elements are the research problem the purpose of the research the methodology methods materials procedures how you went about doing it the key findings and then that key message the other the implications or the key message what can be caps would be the knowledge gap the research questions a conceptual framework. Learn more about essential elements of research paper at Edusson.

But again it really depends on your discipline and it depends on the purpose of the abstract so the more space you have the more words words you can use I would encourage you to include all the components but if of course you only have you know a small amount of space then you need to make decisions about what to include and what to leave out and those decisions will be based on your discipline and what your discipline highlights as being important and you will find that out by reading abstracts in your discipline for you know for the particular type of genre so research article abstracts or conference abstracts okay just a few quick tips be bold in your opening scene but of course I’m saying this with caution because you may not be in a discipline where bold opening sentences are valued but of course you may so then you can but what I’m suggesting is that you want to make your opening sentence count.

If you can’t be bold at least be clear so that you’re conveying something and that will pull your reader in the other thing you want to have in the abstract is what’s new about your research and the significance of your research you really want the essence of it and you can’t have the details right so the other information that often goes along with abstracts would be titles the title is very important that’s often what attracts the reader or the conference goer and for titles you want to get a clear sense of the paper you know for titles you also want to have searchable keywords in the title that reflect what will happen in the paper if you can try and show your original contribution and judge your title on whether it’s represents the paper and attracts a reader other additional information that is often that is often asked for when you submit an abstract would be keywords.

One of the things is you want to make sure that your conclusion of your paper which is your thesis is clear and simple enough for your reader to understand it here you have to always remember that your reader or may not be educated in what you’re talking about which means that you have to do you do need to gauge and write your essay according to who you anticipate to read it so for instance some things like for instance since I teach philosophy certain philosophy papers can have simple theses but that they’re easy for a philosopher understand but not necessarily easy for other people to understand so you need to make sure not only do you gauge your audience but then you write your and you explain your thesis in ways which are clear enough and at the level you need them to be for the readers to understand them. If you want to know more about argumentative essays, check Edusson.

So if you’re writing a if you’re a graduate student in philosophy and you’re writing a graduate paper on Descartes well there for instance there’s a lot of things in your conclusions and you and your essay that you probably don’t need to explicate because the readers are going to read it or also philosophers but if you’re an undergraduate student and you’re writing a philosophy paper or you’re writing about philosophy in your English class well there you need to make sure that things are simplified clarified and also importantly explained you need to use explanation here to your advantage right because know you’re gonna make a definite claim or proposal but you need to make sure that it’s conveyed and communicated in a way that’s rigorously clear so you want to be moving your language from vagueness to clarity murder what is something vagueness is actually an interesting topic in philosophy but vagueness refers to the idea of not knowing how a term is being related and where there’s one or two there’s ambiguity in terms of the possibilities for how a term can be used or an argument is being applied right.

So you want to practice getting away from vague language and moving towards clear language now one of the ways we can do this in practicing is you can find a claim that someone has made and then just practice by adding two more claims that help clarify that idea or proposal so for instance if someone says if someone makes the argument that marijuana should be legal in some circumstances okay okay that makes sense but how could we clarify it let’s just add two more clans and see if we can make this a little bit clearer so let’s say marijuana should be legal in some circumstances in / – I’m making this argument now in particular marijuana should be legalized in cases of medical need and number two marijuana should be legalized as legalized in cases where there is let’s say there’s a democratic support for its legalization right something like this.

Writers today we’re going to learn how to write an introductory paragraph for your argument essay. What I’m going to show you today it is really just a formula and so let’s go ahead and get started.

I need you to know that an unorganized introduction makes for an unclear argument when people start reading your writing and they’re not sure what you’re even trying to prove it’s really confusing. So let’s clear that up here are our goals for the introduction.

Number one grab the reader’s attention with a hook I’m going to show you at least three techniques to use for the hook next describe the topic now this one is more about just adding a little bit more to the topic sentence to just fill it out a little bit and I’ll show you that number three you’re going to present the major ideas and the reasons of your essay and finally.

Number four I’m going to write your claim as the last sentence of your paragraph because we saved the best for last now here’s the argument we’ve been working on and that is that people shouldn’t fish off of Manhattan Beach Pier and here are my 3 reasons pollutants in the water taint the fish the fish are poisoned too it hooks pelicans and other sea life and number three sharks are attracted to fishing spots and we know about the shark attack that happened so let’s start with number one to grab the reader’s attention with a hook one technique is to write a surprising statement like this fishermen who fish off of the Manhattan Beach Pier are putting other people’s lives in danger every day who could think fishermen could do such a thing okay so that’s one here’s another one start with a question now a lot of people often go – have you ever wondered or did you know but every question on a topic sentence doesn’t have to start like that here’s another way do you think that people might think twice about casting their fishing line off of the Manhattan Beach Pier if it led to the death of a floating pelican or even a nearby surfer now not only is that kind of shocking but it’s also beginning with a question that also makes you wonder all right and here’s my last technique an attention grabber here we go the Manhattan Beach Pier is one of the most tranquil places to be on a breezy summer morning that is until the waters turn red with the blood of a surfer being attacked by a great white shark now that is two sentences but it’s still counted as a topic sentence did it get your attention it got mine and that’s the one I’m going to use.

So let’s move on to number two describe the topic tell more so here is the topic sentence we just chose and now I want to add on and just tell more just a little bit so let’s think what could I say that wouldn’t give away my two reads my three reasons and still keep everyone interested so I want to tell more about the great white shark about that it’s dangerous so I came up with something that doesn’t give away too much but still pads my paragraph a little bit every day that pier fishing takes place off of the pier it puts many lives at risk I’m kind of restating my first sentence in a fresh way and adding on to it so that’s my step two let’s go on to step three present the major ideas or reasons of the essay now these are the reasons that you’ve been collecting information on and taking notes and getting quotes so we’re going to present them in a concise way so here they are these are the reasons that we picked but there’s a little problem when I look at them.

I think that I could probably say them in a better way and they each have a different pattern for example pollutants and the water tank fish I started with my topic and then I have a pollutants taint the fish now let’s look at number two it hooks pelicans I kind of put my burb at the beginning of the sentence there and the last the last one has a beginning with sharks but really these three reasons are not following the same pattern and let me show you what I mean if I look at the first reason pollutants in the water taint the fish I could rewrite that to say the fish that are caught might be tainted by pollutants now I’ve made it a little bit more I bumped it up a little bit more and I’m starting a pattern what I’m going to do is start with the fish.

Now I’m going to put the most important part right at the beginning of the sentence so I want to follow that pattern for every single point so let’s look at point two and I want to follow the same pattern it hooks pelicans and other sea life I can rewrite that to say the fishing hooks might also catch pelicans or even people so I followed that pattern I said the same thing but now it flows with my other sentence and here’s the last one sharks are attracted to fishing spots I rewrote that to say the bait used to catch fish also might attract sharks so here’s what it looks like altogether the fish that are caught might be tainted by the pollutants the fishing hooks might also catch pelicans or even people and the bait used to catch fish might also attract sharks do you see the pattern it works better that way now let’s put it all together I took those three thoughts and basically connected them with commas so that they’re all in one sentence I don’t have to read it to you.

I think you get the idea I took the three points put them together into one okay now let’s keep going we’re on to step 4 write your claim as the last sentence of your paragraph you might wonder why would we not put the claim first well we kind of save that for the last almost like the best for the last the best thing is the last thing and we’re building our case and then pow we hit them with the claim now here’s our original claim people shouldn’t fish off of Manhattan be here okay that’s simple that’s clear but it’s not very strong let’s see if we can say that in a more strong way how about there is absolutely no reason that the people should be allowed to fish off of men hit Manhattan Beach Pier.

Now when you say your claim with more strength it really shows this is definitely what you’re saying you stand behind this claim and you’re planning to prove that we’ve got a winner all right now let’s put it all together the Manhattan Beach Pier is one of the most tranquil places to be on a breezy summer morning that is until the waters turn red with a blood of a surfer being attacked by a great white shark every day that pier fishing takes place off of the pier it puts many lives at risk the fish they’re caught might be tainted by pollutants the fishing hooks might also catch pelicans or even people and the bait used to catch fish might also attract sharks there is absolutely no reason that people should be allowed to fish off of Manhattan Beach Pier that pretty much says what I’m going to tell you and I’m very strong about what I’m trying to say.

So let’s remember our goals and this is the formula for writing a successful introduction grab the reader’s attention with a hook describe the topic tell more present the major ideas or reasons of the essay and write your claim as a last sentence of your paragraph it’s as simple of that and you can do it. Good luck you.


That’s fine let me just Essay checker plagiarism online double check that we have some vacancies okay yes we have quite a few vacancies now if you like I can show you some of your room options just feel free to look down at the screen right below and I’ll show you some examples of rooms that we have join now first let me show you are more modest accommodation now I feel below.

You can see I’m more modest accommodation only features a single bed just your basic amenities microwave mini-fridge all right shave something a little bit more upscale from that we also have a double king-sized room doesn’t have a living space but it does have a couch so if you are expecting other guests then the couch will be pullout bed so somebody can sleep there okay all right and next we that we have is a look down below have a small space yes it’s no TV or anything but just a small separate.

Room with a couple of couches if somebody would like to sleep in there a little bit more privacy look they look only a single bathroom all right that’s more long lines of what you’re looking all right sure but I can show you some of the larger Suites if you would like are just Suites are great for parties that if you are here to hotel party so let me show you a sweet hop it does have a TV two TVs Oh rooms come with a single TV but the next suite up from the one that you are.

Essay Checker Plagiarism Online Is So Famous, But Why?

Interested in has two TVs and a more private bedroom as well as you can see it has a master bath as well as a smaller bathroom for other guests how does all right I can show you our next accommodation is our penthouse suite has a two bedrooms one is the master and the second one is this second one is the best bedroom which has two double beds in it you can see the two temple pads it also features a half kitchen which is stocked with a full complement of alcohols at additional charge of course but if you are wanting to have a party it.

With the emerging computer technology, online college and online university degrees are being offered to students all over the world. People as far as Europe, Latin America, Africa and Asia can study online and pursue their education. If you are a high school graduate who would like to pursue your education and possess the technical knowledge in computer you can start your research and find out how you can study through online college and online university degree programs. Be sure that your computer is good and fast enough to keep you updated with your course study and assignments.

According to research more than 5 million students are studying in online college and online university degrees institutes. They are finding it more convenient to study in the comfort of their own homes. Online education allows you to study during your available time. That is why it is popular among the working class. People who are working or employed can have a chance to improve the quality of their lives by getting higher education online. Working mothers who are dreaming of acquiring their bachelor’s or master’s degrees but do not have the time to go to school are taking advantage of online education.

Education online is in the form of virtual education. Your courses are done using the computer. Your professor or instructor will guide you face to face during your online study. You can ask your instructor for any lessons that you are not able to understand by sending an email. Interaction with your classmates is also done online. There are educational tools that are being used to deliver the lessons online such as video conferencing, emails and blogs.

This form of education is interesting to some students who do not want to travel from home to school. In this way, students can cut on additional expenses. They can study in the privacy of their living rooms without so much noise and distractions. Depending on how diligent they are, they have the ability to finish their courses as quickly as 18 weeks.

There are some disadvantages too! If you are a person who is active and would like to study in the company of other people, then online education is not for you. When you study in online college and online university degrees institute, you will have to write and do your research by yourself. Although there is a time of mentoring from your instructors, you are responsible to study and write your own projects and reports. You need a lot of self-motivation and determination to finish your assignments and be up to date with your school work.

There are many accredited online college and online university degrees offered through online courses and degree programs that you can search on the internet. Various online universities offer different kinds of degrees for you to choose from. The tuition fees vary according to the kind of degree courses you will take. They offer online certificate programs, online bachelor’s and master’s degrees as well as doctorate and online graduate programs.

If you want to write good research articles, use a free Online Text Checker that helps writers and students with essay writing and editing.

The holiday season is upon us, and we working women find ourselves in what I call the Seasonal “time management conflict” between family and work. Through in a few relatives and friends who dare to have birthdays in the holiday season and our time management plans are turned into nightmares. We find ourselves wishing for “unholidays and unbirthdays” such as those in Alice in Wonderland.  So how do we get through this season and enjoy it rather being overly stressed and completely exhausted?

The first thing we have to do is face the reality.  Unfortunately regardless of our jobs, our careers or our time, women are, in most cases, expected to be the driving force behind enjoyable holidays.  We are not only expected to be driving force with family and friends but often in the office.  All this puts extra stress on us during the holiday season. To get through this time of year the most important thing to do is first manage other people’s expectation and will not be responsible for everything.  Manage the expectations of your family, your friends, and your colleagues.  Set the parameters for expectations before the holiday season gets into full swing because once it does it will be too late.

Once you have managed others expectations than manage your own.  Decide what you can really do and what you cannot do.  Use the time management skills you use everyday of the year. Do not panic just because the holiday season is more demanding.

When you have managed the expectations of others and your own then there are a few simple steps you can take to make the holiday season balanced and enjoyable.


  1. Make a road map of what your deliveries for work are during the holiday season.  The season usually begins the middle of November and ends after New Years.  What are the important projects, decisions, accomplishments that need to be made?  It is important to make sure that your work does not suffer because of extra external demands during this time of year.  Others, especially men would love to point out how difficult it is for women to manage during the times where there are extra external demands.  Do not allow this to happen.

If you are in a job where you are providing a service such as a cashier, working in a store or the many other service oriented positions, then stay focused.  Make sure that when you are at work your work as your complete attention. Be punctual, and do not be distracted.

Not focusing on your work, when at work, only gives strength to those who believe women cannot balance families and careers.

Be Organized in your private Life.  Think of the holidays as a project with a beginning and an end.  Make a roadmap of what you need to do. The outline you’re the milestones in your project.  Milestones such as shopping, cooking, wrapping, maybe someone’s birthday or whatever you feel needs to be done in order to move you along. Set deadlines for your milestones.  Put them in a timeline.  If you miss one, then try to catch it.  If you do not attaché timelines to your milestones then you will be doing everything at the last minute.

  1. Delegate. Do not take all the responsibility on yourself.  If you are hosting dinner then ask others to bring dishes.  If your children are old enough delegate some of the shopping or cooking to them.  Delegate the wrapping of gifts.  Have older children take care of the wrapping for the younger ones when appropriate.  In the office, make sure that everyone shares the responsibility if you are celebrating together. Just make sure you do not leave everything to yourself.
  2. Keep to the Basics.  Keep parties and dinners simple.  It is the Holiday season and it is about spending time with family and friends not outdoing each other.  Simple menu choices with easy dishes go over a lot better and are a lot easier than trying to produce a five-star meal.  Do not over decorate, it can be very time consuming if you are on a tight schedule.  Enjoy the season for what it is not for what it appears to be.
  3. Keep travel simple.  This is sometimes hard if you are living or traveling to places that tend to get cold during the holiday season.  Jackets, sweaters and winter clothes take up a lot of room so try to pack less using items that can be interchanged.  If you are traveling to where it is cold, washable turtlenecks in different colors can accent a sweater or almost anything.  Less is better.
  4. Shop Online.  Almost everything is available online today especially toys and other gift items.  Shopping online saves time and allows you to focus on other things. Many online stores will even gift wrap for you, another timesaver If you need to go to a shopping mall, then go early in the morning.  Stores tend to get overly crowed later in the day. Many online stores will even gift wrap for you, another timesaver.
  5. Put the family or friends in a Hotel.  If you are tight on space, or even if you want your space, suggest to visitors that they take a hotel.  You would be surprised how many people are relieved when you suggest this.  Many people want their own space, and sometimes they believe suggesting a hotel themselves would be insulting you. I always put my family up a small family hotel near my apartment.  Having others underfoot when you are trying to balance the holidays and work can be very stressful.
  6. Do small things in advance.  Cooking, wrapping gifts, making decorations are all little things you can do one at a time when you have time.  Cook something and freeze it.  Wrap a few gifts when you have time.  Multitask with the small things.  If you do little things from time to time you will not be faced with a big list of things to do all at the last minute.
  7. Just say no.  During the holiday’s invitations are abundant.  Everyone is having a party, a celebration or going out for a small “holiday drink”.  You cannot be everywhere.  Pick what is important to you and politely decline the rest.  Makeup by sending the invite an e-mail or small note wishing them all the best during the very busy holiday season.

This year instead of dreading the holiday season, take control.  You will find if you manage the season just as you would manage your work, it will be much more enjoyable and will go by very quickly.

I wish all my readers a stressless “unholiday” season.  Alice

One of the things I hear the most from job seekers is how difficult it is to quantify results from their past work experience. Everyone agrees that doing so is helpful, if not critical, to the job search. However, most find it difficult to show a measurement for something they have done in the past. They didn’t keep track of the numbers, or they can’t remember them now, or they “were just doing their job” and don’t really know what measurable impact their impact had on the end result. Or, and this is really most often the case, they are confused and scared as to how to do this important work.

If you are one of the people who has had trouble quantifying results, then I’d like to invite you to join me in this week’s challenge – “One CAR Statement per day.” Writing one a day will help you get past the fear and confusion to take a giant leap forward in your career search.

You can use these on your resume, in your networking, as part of an interview, and in negotiating for a higher salary! It’s simple. I’ll start.

CONDITION: In the fall of 2001 five denominations were planning their joint summer camp curriculum for the next summer.

ACTIVITY: They brought a group of us together to brainstorm themes and activities based on a topic that would be used nationwide by more than 200 camp programs. I was assigned to write the curriculum for the older children (grades 4-6). I had to research both the topic and the learning styles/needs of this age group.

RESULT: I wrote a curriculum and it was well received. I turned in my curriculum on time. One Camp Director even said that it was the best in the series (in her opinion). Curriculum titled: “Under God’s Roof: Daily Discoveries for Older Children”, Summer Camp Curriculum, published by the Cooperative Publication Association, March 2002.

STATEMENT: Researched topic and learning needs and wrote a curriculum that was used by over 200 summer camp programs nationwide in 2002.

The first real news has all happened today. First I will be presenting my paper “Breathing Like a Soldier” in Stockholm Sweden in the Embodying Sociology Session. I will be discussing how the soldier’s seemingly bizarre world of asceticism, suffering, and limit pushing is made sensible through the conversion of the soldiers body from civilian to martial. I will lay out how the situation of the novice who is trying to “make do” in an objective economy of practices comes to transform his corporeal scheme through the embodiment of techniques du corp, such as styles of breathing, and how this then changes how that world is experienced. In this sense I argue that breathing is both a disposition for action, a readiness of the body to act in terms of conditioning of the respiratory system and as a habit for regulating breathing to stimulate the body for dexterous activity or to calm it as a platform for deploying weapons. On the other hand the incorporation of techniques for breahting as habit, the result of engagment in drills for fitness and for marksmanship, acts as a form of incarnate knowledge to the extent that the world is immediatly apprehended in terms of the bodies readiness and capability for action.

So what does carnal sociology as an ethnographic project do that adds to the traditional approach of making distanced observations about a group, an approach in which every effort is made to suspend participation in the world studied, to avoid affecting the situation studied, and to make sure that the sample acquired is representative? Carnal sociology proposes a number of advancements in participant-observation research:

1.) It aims to demonstrate, in action, a theoretical and methodological approach that takes seriously the fact that social agents are beings of flesh, nerves, and sense, who partake in the world that makes them and them in turn contribute to the making, with every fiber of his or her being. As Loic Wacquant has put it to me once, carnal sociology is not a sociology “of the body” but a sociology “from the body.”
2.) Carnal ethnography does this by placing the observer in the center of the action where the researcher engages in a methodical and meticulous work of detection and documentation, to try and capture the “taste and ache of action,” the sound and fury of the social world that positivistic approaches tend to suppress or make mute. In this way a carnal sociology adds another dimension to ethnography as “a fine-grained depiction of the ways of feeling, thinking, and acting of a particular people in a particular milieu.”
3.) This documentation and detection is accomplished ONLY by initiatory immersion and even moral and sensual conversion to the cosmos under investigation. How can one know what soldiers look for in the woods without oneself having the perceptual and sensorial powers to appreciate the soldier’s visual and acoustic world. But to attain such a power of sight and sound one must be ready for an “education of the sense.” Above all what this allows is, given the proper theoretical and analytical tools, for the sociologist to appropriate in and through participation the cognitive, aesthetic, ethical, and conative (desires) structures that those who inhabit that cosmos engage in their everyday deeds  .
4.)  If the knowledge that we are seeking is a knowledge learned by the body, a social world inscribed in the bodies of those that dwell in it, in the form of affects, habits, and dispositions, then the sociologist must submit to the fire of action, in the situation, and to the greatest extent possible put his or her own being, sense, and incarnate intelligence at the epicenter of the material and symbolic forces that he or she wishes to dissect
5.) It is misleading to see this kind of research as primarily a personal or autobiographical narrative. Rather the body of the sociologist is deployed, often unwillingly, as a tool of inquiry and vector of knowledge. The transformations of the sociologist’s body become just one more indicator of the world under investigation. I do not simply study my body. I thematize the transformations to it in order to direct my attention to what I might otherwise miss in the surrounding social world. I allow myself to be sensitized and interested in the  cosmos I am new to.
6.) One does not focus exclusively on the sociologists transformation alone. Interviews, video and photo documentary and simple observation must all be consulted to create a dense network of overlapping data that makes the social world studied in some sense “more” real.
7.) Carnal ethnography is a science. It claims to make falsifiable and generalizable explanations of a social phenomenon that, in principle, could be repeated.
8.) Carnal ethnography is an intervention (closely related to point 5). It is by mutual reaction that we discover properties of the social order. One can do this by creating ripples in the social situation and alternatively in the flesh of the researcher. Research and social world should be in a relationship of reactivity. The social world rarely reveals its secrets without some kind of seismic disturbance.

Thus to answer your question in brief, I translate my carnal experience to something larger by never making carnal  experience my explicit goal. I have a carnal experience precisely because I inhabit the world that I study. It is just one more way of understanding, although this time practical rather than intellectual. I continue to make observations of the group in its material, social, and symbolic setting, but I do so with ever more discriminating senses.
Read more  researches on Edusson.com

How to treat gender, violence, and extreme situations.

What it isn’t:

— Autoethnography

A Social Ontology—Primer for a method:

Lande, Brian. 10/14/04.”Carnal Sociology is not Autoethnography: A personal correspondence.”

This is a response to a letter asking about whether or not sociology is any different than autoethnography. As such I have edited it somewhat to depersonalize it. It should be read with the thought in mind that this is not a formal piece with the appropriate references and analytic rigor of a peer-reviewed article but is, rather, a letter of response to friendly inquiry.


Immediately it must be understood that carnal sociology is not to be considered one more postmodern autoethnography, an ethnography or rather biographical diary that seems to be more about the researcher and his/her development and experience of the field. Such an ethnography fails to be empirical or due justice to the  craft  that was formally known as participant-observation. Rather carnal sociology (or if you prefer carnal ethnography) takes seriously the role of the ethnographer as participant. Carnal sociology only risks falling into the category of autoethnography if the research were merely a description of, for example, my participation. Then it would merely be another study preoccupied with the self and perhaps yet another product of the postmodern asocial theory of knowledge that argues the impossibility of knowing anything beyond the self (and hence caught up in what I like to refer to as Kant’s science fiction nightmare). But if my research is ultimately a carnal ethnography, then it is not a report about me and my transformations. I have tried to use my participation in the military, and now in the police, as a gateway into a mysterious and secluded world that does not operate according to the common sense principles and logics of either the academic, economic, or political spheres. What we as both curious citizens and intellectuals are left with are a vagary of stereotypes, propagated by the media  as well  as the folk representations of the military itself and no doubt the ideological machinery of the State. How to counteract these? Will a survey do? Not really, because such a method depends on an a priori knowledge of relevant categories to collect data on as well as relying on the self-reports of the subjects themselves. While self-reports are often helpful, they miss the non-obvious aspects of social life that are either forgotten because they are common sense or, like fetishes, tacit knowledges, and habits, cannot be revealed to consciousness without undermining the social order itself. Thus the situation we are in when studying groups such as the Army or the Police is that what we know is limited by stereotypes and very real social division between civil society and the internal workings and cultures of these  institutions even, as the case may be, if such organizations are vital to the very functioning of the social order.

Carnal sociology, more than even the best designed survey, is about as empirical as one can get in the social sciences. Although there are strictures on just how much a single ethnographer can see, the carnal sociologist  gets  as close to living, breathing, sweating, bleeding, vomiting, eating, and erotic people as is possible in order to fully describe the the phenomena of interest. Indeed if we are at all concerned with studying social practices we must always be able to account for humanity in the flesh, the flesh being the unifying principle of social world and acting organism. All other methods are limited to reporting what people say about what they do (although many survey instruments track down “traces of behavior” left in institutions such as hospitals, law enforcement agencies, and bureaucracies.  Furthermore, since the unifying principles of social practice tend not to be logical (in the sense of the logic of the logician) but practically reasonable, and grounded in the generative scheme’s of the body as habits, dispositions, and skills, these generative principles are often not available to linguistic reflection for study. A sociologist, Pierre Bourdieu, once wrote that, “There are heaps of things that we understand only with our bodies, outside conscious awarness, without being able to put our understanding into words” (1990: 166). To try and capture what is going on through formal modeling, or the responses of informants, means possibly destroying the phenomena that one wants to study, namely the relationship of skill and desire to social worlds.

So the analyst, in trying to describe social phenomena and experience, is left to try and apprehend the social world through the same practical and embodied scheme of ‘natives.’ This means using the analysts own body as a kind of experimental device, to try and recreate in the analysts body the sensitivities and habits of the members of a social world through prolonged exposure of the analysts body to the same world of practices, challenges, and necessities as the members of a social universe. If the analyst does his or her work then he should be able to develop the same relationship of passion that so many people have to their social worlds. But above all that means encountering the practices of an institution head on, and being willing to risk the interests, desires, and skills that one enters that world with to a gradual transformation. When the analyst is finished working they should have acquired a new bundle of inclinations and abilities, suited to the social world under study, such that cannot but see the world through body of the world they study. (I think I can safely say, and my mentors and friends can testify to this, that after a year and half studying the military, I had to a great degree become a living and breathing incarnation of its values and purposes. This made the decision to leave the field a painful experience, one that I experienced as nausea). That said, the purpose of carnal ethnography is to have the best of two worlds: the detached observation of a disinterested observer (through the application of the sociologists tools of objectificaiton) and engaged natural attitude of a participant, caught up in the ebb and flow of the social life one is studying.

At some level this means not treating going “native” as research gone horribly wrong. Rather one goes native. But only to a point. What differentiates the carnal sociologist from the native at the end of the day is precisely what the native (as if such a person exists!) and the analyst do in their evenings. The analyst, when he goes home (or in my case under the sheets of my bed in the barracks of Fort Knox) uses his analytical tools to explain and interpret what he or she has observed and experienced.